In order to clarify the cause of the particular annealing behavior of resistivity of electroless Ni–Mo–P alloy films, the film structure after various heat treatment of a typical crystalline Ni-Mo-P alloy film by electroless plating was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the Ni–Mo–P film under as-plated conditions, the lattice image is observed, but it contains some regions having no lattice images due to amorphous conditions. The structure of small grains is kept even after heat treatment at 400°C, but the nonuniformity of Mo concentration is confirmed to exist in the film. After heat treatment at 700°C, the grains become larger and crystals with complete lattice images and no defects are observed. The results support the annealing effect of resistivity of the crystalline Ni–Mo–P alloy film, which shows a maximum upon heat treatment at around 400–500°C.
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