Microstructures of electroless NiP and Cu films at the initial deposition stages, deposited onto dielectric substrates, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The difference in the initial deposition conditions between NiP and Cu films was clearly observed; it is suggested that their growth processes depended mainly on the initial crystalline states. The NiP deposits consist of very fine component crystallites that grow isotropically to form uniform and spherical grains. On the other hand, the Cu deposits are composed of larger component crystallites. They grow along their crystalline axes with random orientation, resulting in their angular and irregular deposition conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry