Tree of motility – A proposed history of motility systems in the tree of life

Makoto Miyata*, Robert C. Robinson, Taro Q.P. Uyeda, Yoshihiro Fukumori, Shun ichi Fukushima, Shin Haruta, Michio Homma, Kazuo Inaba, Masahiro Ito, Chikara Kaito, Kentaro Kato, Tsuyoshi Kenri, Yoshiaki Kinosita, Seiji Kojima, Tohru Minamino, Hiroyuki Mori, Shuichi Nakamura, Daisuke Nakane, Koji Nakayama, Masayoshi NishiyamaSatoshi Shibata, Katsuya Shimabukuro, Masatada Tamakoshi, Azuma Taoka, Yosuke Tashiro, Isil Tulum, Hirofumi Wada, Ken ichi Wakabayashi


研究成果: Review article査読

30 被引用数 (Scopus)


Motility often plays a decisive role in the survival of species. Five systems of motility have been studied in depth: those propelled by bacterial flagella, eukaryotic actin polymerization and the eukaryotic motor proteins myosin, kinesin and dynein. However, many organisms exhibit surprisingly diverse motilities, and advances in genomics, molecular biology and imaging have showed that those motilities have inherently independent mechanisms. This makes defining the breadth of motility nontrivial, because novel motilities may be driven by unknown mechanisms. Here, we classify the known motilities based on the unique classes of movement-producing protein architectures. Based on this criterion, the current total of independent motility systems stands at 18 types. In this perspective, we discuss these modes of motility relative to the latest phylogenetic Tree of Life and propose a history of motility. During the ~4 billion years since the emergence of life, motility arose in Bacteria with flagella and pili, and in Archaea with archaella. Newer modes of motility became possible in Eukarya with changes to the cell envelope. Presence or absence of a peptidoglycan layer, the acquisition of robust membrane dynamics, the enlargement of cells and environmental opportunities likely provided the context for the (co)evolution of novel types of motility.

ジャーナルGenes to Cells
出版ステータスPublished - 2020 1月 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • 遺伝学
  • 細胞生物学


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