Several enveloped viruses exploit host pathways, such as the cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, for their assembly and release. The influenza A virus (IAV) matrix protein binds to the ESCRT-I complex, although the involvement of early ESCRT proteins such as Tsg101 in IAV trafficking remain to be established. We find that Tsg101 can facilitate IAV trafficking, but this is effectively restricted by the interferon (IFN)-stimulated protein ISG15. Cytosol from type I IFN-treated cells abolished IAV hemagglutinin (HA) transport to the cell surface in infected semi-intact cells. This inhibition required Tsg101 and could be relieved with deISGylases. Tsg101 is itself ISGylated in IFN-treated cells. Upon infection, intact Tsg101-deficient cells obtained by CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing were defective in the surface display of HA and for infectious virion release. These data support the IFN-induced generation of a Tsg101- and ISG15-dependent checkpoint in the secretory pathway that compromises influenza virus release.
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