We address the issue of appropriate user modeling to generate cooperative responses to users in spoken dialogue systems. Unlike previous studies that have focused on a user's knowledge, we propose more generalized modeling. We specifically set up three dimensions for user models: the skill level in use of the system, the knowledge level about the target domain, and the degree of urgency. Moreover, the models are automatically derived by decision tree learning using actual dialogue data collected by the system. We obtained reasonable accuracy in classification for all dimensions. Dialogue strategies based on user modeling were implemented on the Kyoto City Bus Information System that was developed at our laboratory. Experimental evaluations revealed that the cooperative responses adapted to each subject type served as good guides for novices without increasing the duration dialogue lasted for skilled users.
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