Climate change spurs havoc on social-ecological system. People and places vulnerable to climate change have been the focus of many discussions. However, in the forestry sector, limited studies have been conducted that link human vulnerability to recent initiatives, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation or REDD+, especially in highly vulnerable countries. Using case studies from the Philippines, this paper focuses on the vulnerability of two community-based forest management (CBFM) organizations, with and without REDD+ readiness intervention, to show the impacts of climate variability and extremes. Two balance-weighted approaches, the livelihood vulnerability index and the IPCC-framework, were used in the vulnerability assessments. Results revealed high vulnerability of both CBFM organizations, although Malitbog Upland Developers for Sustainable Association (MUDSA) livelihood vulnerability is largely aggravated by its exposure to disaster, climate variability and extremes, accessibility to health facilities and water supply. The long history of CBFM implementation in both organizations have minimal contribution in enhancing the adaptive capacity of members to cope with and adapt to climate change impacts. REDD+ (readiness), does not insure reduced vulnerability to climate change, unless sustainable livelihood is achieved. As the State controls forest resources, the rights of CBFM-organizations to commercially benefit from these resources are limited, a disincentive to the development of new and viable development programs in CBFM areas, such as REDD+. This also constrains the achievement of climate resiliency.
ASJC Scopus subject areas